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                      烙畫
                      點擊: 次  發布時間:2015/4/5 21:17:40


                      一、烙畫作品展示

                       

                      烙畫作品展示.jpg


                      二、烙畫簡介


                          烙畫古稱“火針刺繡”,近名“火筆畫”、“燙畫”等,是中國古代一種極其珍貴的稀有畫種。據史料記載,烙畫源于西漢、盛于東漢后由于連年災荒戰亂,曾一度失傳,直到清光緒三年,才被河南南陽的一名叫“趙星”的民間藝人重新發現整理,后經輾傳,逐漸形成以河南、河北等地為代表地幾大派系。 烙畫以前僅限于在木質材料上烙繪,如:木板、樹皮、葫蘆等。畫面上自然產生不平地肌理變化,具有一定地浮雕效果,色彩呈深、淺褐色乃至黑色。烙畫用一種特制的鐵筆,在扇骨、梳篦、木制家具以及紙絹等上面烙制成的工藝畫。現代大膽采用宣紙、絲絹等材質,從而豐富了烙畫這一門藝術形式。河南、廣東、浙江、江蘇和安徽等地都有生產。


                      三、烙畫的起源

                         

                      南陽,古稱“宛”,中國歷史文化名城。遠在五千多年前,漢族先民們已在此創造了遠古文明。此后成為夏人之腹地,商之南土,周之申呂之國。春秋設宛邑,宛已成冶鐵中心、全國五大都會之一。秦置南陽郡。因漢光武帝劉秀發跡于南陽,成為洛陽陪都,所以南陽史有“南都”“帝鄉”之譽。歷史上,南陽歷為郡府(縣)治所,“南據荊襄,北屏汝洛”,“商遍天下,富冠海內”。從而為烙畫藝術的產生發展奠定了深厚的物質基礎。烙畫,亦稱烙花、燙花、火筆畫、“火針刺繡”,它是利用碳化原理,通過控溫技巧,不施任何顏料以烙為主套彩為輔的表現手法,在竹木、宣紙、絲絹等材料上勾畫烘燙作畫,巧妙自然地把繪畫藝術的各種表現技術與烙畫藝術融為一體,形成自己的藝術風格。


                      四、烙制工具


                          開始,烙畫藝人以鐵針為工具,在油燈上炙烤進行烙繪,主要作為筷子、尺子、木梳等小件日用品上的裝飾。后來,制作工藝和工具不斷改革,由“油燈烙”換代為“電烙”,將單一的烙針或烙鐵換代為專用電烙筆,比較先進的電烙筆可以隨意調溫,從而使這一古老的創作方式具備了前所未有的表現能力。


                      五、烙制材料


                          以前僅限于在木板、樹皮、葫蘆等材質上烙繪,畫面上自然產生凸凹不平的肌理變化,具有一定的浮雕效果,色彩呈深、淺褐色乃至黑色。現在大膽采用宣紙、絲絹等材質,從而豐富了烙畫這門藝術形式。早期的葫蘆、竹木材質較硬且厚實,所以烙制較易控制。宣紙和絲絹較薄,但卻不失烙畫本身利用碳化程度的不同形成的深淺、濃淡、虛實的變化。溫度過高,手法過重,紙、絹會變焦;溫度過低又烙不上痕跡。況且還要根據畫面內容進行藝術再創作,從而使絲絹烙畫、宣紙烙畫成為南陽烙畫中的精品。


                      六、烙制技法


                          烙繪技法也發展出潤色、燙刻、細描和烘暈、渲染等。烙畫作品一般呈深、淺褐色,古樸典雅,清晰秀麗,其特有的高低不平的肌理變化具有一定的浮雕效果,別具一格。




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