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                      朱仙鎮木版年畫
                      點擊: 次  發布時間:2015/4/5 21:08:10


                      一、朱仙鎮木板年畫


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                      二、朱仙鎮木版年畫 


                      朱仙鎮木版年畫是古老的漢族傳統工藝品之一。作為中國木版年畫的鼻祖,[1]  主要分布于河南省開封、朱仙鎮及其周邊地區。朱仙鎮木版年畫構圖飽滿,線條粗擴簡煉,造型古樸夸張,色彩新鮮艷麗,與天津楊柳青年畫、山東濰坊楊家埠木版年畫、江蘇桃花塢年畫并稱中國四大年畫。

                      2006年5月20日,朱仙鎮木版年畫經國務院批準列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。


                      三、朱仙鎮木版年畫歷史溯源


                          朱仙鎮木版年畫誕生于唐,興于宋,鼎盛于明,歷史悠久,源遠流長。

                      北宋初年,宋都東京是全國政治、經濟、文化的中心,各地的商人大量涌向京城。龐大的市民階層促進了世俗文藝的發展,活躍的世俗文藝又給年畫的創作提供了豐厚的土壤。加之活字印刷術的發明,將中國雕版印刷業推向繁榮。自此,年畫也由筆畫轉向刻版印刷。當時東京木版年畫的印刷及銷售盛況空前。不僅民間作坊遍布京城,就連宋室官廷也主持開辦年畫作坊。官辦與民辦作坊的融合,使木版年畫的發展成為必然。

                          北宋末期,由于金兵的入侵,京都淪陷,繁榮的市民文化逐漸蕭條。大量年畫藝人流落江南,東京的木版年畫業遷至東京45里外的朱仙鎮。

                      明清時期,朱仙鎮河道四通八達,隨即成為中原的商業重鎮。木版年畫在繁榮的商埠迅速恢復,買賣興隆,聲名大振。據載,當時朱仙鎮從事這一行業的有300余家。

                          清末時,由于朱仙鎮河道阻塞,航道不通,木版年畫與其他商業都日趨蕭條。

                          民國初期,鎮上有40多家生產作坊,2000多人從事年畫生產,山東、安徽、河北、江蘇等地的客戶紛至沓來,生意十分興攏畫店有萬通、晉涌泰、天興德、德盛昌、天義德、天成德、大天成、二天成、得源長、萬盛、三成義等。

                          抗日戰爭爆發前,朱仙鎮木版年畫業遷往開封,自此又掀起木版年畫繁榮的第三次高潮。當時開封的年畫作坊有60多家,主要集中在東大街,西大街、中山路和書店街。著名的老店有"匯川"、"振源永"、"云記"、"鴻記"、"天福利"等。

                          1949年后,開封市先后成立了開封年畫社、河南朱仙鎮木版年畫社等團體機構,對木版年畫的傳統工藝進行挖掘、整理。


                      四、藝術特色


                      1、表現手法


                         朱仙鎮木版年畫來自民間,流傳于民間,別于歷代宮廷文人畫溫文爾雅的格調。它線條粗獷奔放,情節鮮明感人,構圖飽滿勻稱,形象古樸生動,色彩渾厚強烈,極富于裝飾效果,具有鮮明的地方特色。

                      在表現手法上,朱仙鎮年畫吸取了傳統繪畫技法及豐富多彩的裝飾手法,創作出栩栩如生的人物故事,但對人物的襯景不作著意描繪,能做到恰到好處。朱仙鎮木版年畫是以簡潔明快夸張的手法處理畫面和刻畫人物形象的。對神祗的形象塑造,特別突出頭部形象,身體比例夸張,極具感染力。人物的面貌健美英俊而不帶媚色,是朱仙鎮年畫最突出的特點。

                         朱仙鎮年畫源于民間,經歷代藝人之手而融入了民族傳統文化的審美觀念和崇神意識,反映了農民希冀五谷豐登、富裕興旺、和睦如意、平安吉祥、六畜興旺等美好的生活愿望,以及扶正驅邪、愛憎分明的思想感情。

                         朱仙鎮木版年畫繼承了中國古代優良的傳統藝術手法,形成了自己的地方特點:整個畫面飽滿、緊湊、嚴密,基本不留空白,能做到主次分明,主體突出,不繁瑣,表現出勻實對稱圖案的裝飾味道。畫面上藝人還采用了中國畫的“散點透視法”,使每件事物都能清楚地表現主體并為主體服務,畫面的安排,不會使人感到有不合情理之處。[4] 


                      2、工藝特點


                         朱仙鎮木版年畫制作采用木版與鏤版相結合,水印套色,種類繁多,所用原料為炮制工序,用紙講究,色彩艷麗,莊重深朱厚,題材和內容大多取材于歷史戲劇、演義小說、神話故事和民間傳說。年畫鄉土氣息濃郁,民間情趣強烈,具有獨特的地方色彩和淳樸古老的民族風格。[5] 

                      朱仙鎮木版年畫刀技線條粗獷豪放,陰粗陽細,陰陽對比性較強。尤其是在神像畫的衣紋上表現更為突出,有鄉土氣息,具有北方民族的純樸、厚實、健壯、整潔的藝術風格。

                      年畫藝人根據不同人物和性格,運用中國傳統繪畫手法線描,融匯戲劇人物臉譜藝術,想象大膽夸張,塑造出千姿百態性格各異的人物形象。


                      3、色彩運用


                          朱仙鎮木版年畫十分講究用色,以礦物、植物作原料,自行手工磨制顏料,磨出的顏料色彩十分純凈,以之印制的年畫明快鮮艷,久不褪色,構圖飽滿勻稱,線條簡練粗獷,造型古樸夸張,藝術風格獨特。

                         朱仙鎮年畫非常注意中華民族的欣賞習慣,多用青、黃、紅三原色,用色總數可達9~10種。民間常說:“黃見紫,難看死。”而開封朱仙鎮年畫黃紫兩色的搭配,顏色厚重,對比強烈,不僅沒有難看之嫌,反而色彩鮮艷,與民間過年的歡樂氣氛協調一致。[5] 

                      朱仙鎮年畫崇尚使用暖色,如丹紅、木紅、桃紅、槐黃、桔黃等,顯得熱烈奔放。色版設置有:黑線版(黑胚)、水黑版、紅版、臉版(木紅)、紫版(葵紫)、綠版(銅綠)、青版、藍版、黃版(版黃)等,其中除黃版之外,皆木版套印。人物服飾設色以木紅、銅綠、葵紫三色為主,將世俗生活中的色彩融于神祗崇拜的宗教色彩模式之中。如“鎮宅鐘馗”紅冠綠袍;“灶馬”中的灶爺為紅袍,灶奶為綠袍;“關爺”為紅臉綠袍。以廣丹飾繪人物眼皮也是朱仙鎮年畫所特有的風格,如“火塘寨”(銅錘換玉帶)中的趙匡胤、楊鯀,“帶子上朝”中的郭子儀,“加官晉祿”中的陸登,“柴王推車”中的柴榮,“茍家灘”中的李嗣源、王彥章,“馬上鞭”中的秦叔寶、尉遲恭等,以此表現人物鮮明的審美個性。


                      4、構圖技巧


                      朱仙鎮木版年畫構圖飽滿,線條粗擴簡煉,造型古樸夸張,色彩新鮮艷麗。人物頭大身子小,既有喜劇效果又覺得勻稱舒適。有些地方的年畫人物臉部多打紅臉蛋來妝飾,而朱仙鎮的年畫不打紅臉蛋,看起來很自然和諧。在中國傳統民間工藝中,人們多把老虎做成或畫成黃老虎或紅老虎,而朱仙鎮的年畫是黑老虎。這種不拘泥于傳統的創作手法、受到了中外美術界的重視和贊譽。 



                      五、制作工藝


                          朱仙鎮木版年畫的制作工藝十分講究。

                        第一步選用上等堅實的梨木進行刻版,刻前先用植物油涂于木板表面三到四遍,自然涼干后,再用頂沸的熱水沖洗。然后用特制刮刀刮去木板表面浮油,藝人稱之為“熟版”。木板雕刻工具早年多為自行制作,有刻刀、凈縫刀、文章銼、鞏銼、刮刀、鏟刀、敲錘等二十余件。后來,雕版師傅也在使用成套的專用雕刻刀。

                        年畫的印制工具多就地取材,采用當地野生植物頂端之茸毛和棕,用繩子捆扎而成。

                        草制圓錐形色刷,一色一刷不能混用。

                        另有敲錘兒、沙袋、沾刷等輔助工具。

                        年畫用紙,舊時多采用本地廉價土造紙、毛邊紙,清代以來,年畫開始使用規格大、韌性好的日本油光紙。而后來多用中國傳統的生宣紙印制。

                        年畫200張為一“塊”。印時將紙張按不同的張數按“塊”夾在自制竹夾上。紙夾牢后,一頭插入 “管釘”,一頭置于自制灰磚槽中,紙折疊呈“S”狀。

                        印黑線版需雙手用力,線條才清晰,瓷實。整套動作和過程,要求眼明手快、手眼密切配合,必須全身心投入一絲不茍。

                          色版較線版含色量大,用力過重紙易爛,用力過輕色塊不瓷實。左手操 “趟子”作平掃狀,每道工序都需精心操作。

                        高檔年畫與神像畫人物之眼眸、胡須、服飾需加套水墨、金粉、套色可多達九遍。普通年畫以黑、黃、紅、丹、綠、紫六色, 先淡后重,依次套印而成。

                        套畫套色順序為,先印黑,后黃,再紅、綠、青、有些畫樣還需加托水紅,或印臉。

                        畫印好后需停幾個小時使顏色 “吃”入紙內。晚上再 “晾”,晾要恰到好處。

                        朱仙鎮木版年畫印刷用色十分講究。藝人們運用傳統的炒、熬、濾等多道配色工藝,精心炮制。使年畫色彩更加鮮艷,絢麗多彩。他們在綠、紫色中加入白礬、石灰。紫、綠兩色要充分發酵,調制時要調起泡沫,色彩才沉穩、耐看、有韻味。還將色中加入殘剩茶葉水,晾畫時,才互不粘連等等。




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