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                      展示類
                      羅山皮影
                      點擊: 次  發布時間:2015/4/5 20:58:53


                      一、皮影戲作品展示


                      皮影作品展示.jpg


                      二、皮影戲簡介 


                          皮影一般指皮影戲(民間傳統藝術)

                      皮影戲,又稱“影子戲”或“燈影戲”,是一種以獸皮或紙板做成的人物剪影以表演故事的民間戲劇。表演時,藝人們在白色幕布后面,一邊操縱影人,一邊用當地流行的曲調講述故事,同時配以打擊樂器和弦樂,有濃厚的鄉土氣息。其流行范圍極為廣泛,并因各地所演的聲腔不同而形成多種多樣的皮影戲。

                          皮影戲是中國民間古老的傳統藝術,老北京人都叫它“驢皮影”。據史書記載,皮影戲始于戰國,興于漢朝,興于唐宋,盛于清代,元代時期傳至西亞和歐洲,可謂歷史悠久,源遠流長。

                      2011年,中國皮影戲入選人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄。



                      三、皮影表演形式


                          皮影戲,舊稱“影子戲”或“燈影戲”,是一種用蠟燭或燃燒的酒精等光源照射獸皮或紙板做成的人物剪影以表演故事的民間戲劇。表演時,藝人們在白色幕布后面,一邊操縱戲曲人物,一邊用當地流行的曲調唱述故事(有時用方言),同時配以打擊樂器和弦樂,有濃厚的鄉土氣息。在河南、山西、陜西、甘肅天水等地農村,這種拙樸的漢族民間藝術形式很受人們的歡迎。

                          “皮影”是對皮影戲和皮影戲人物(包括場面道具景物)制品的通用稱謂。皮影戲是讓觀眾通過白色幕布,觀看一種平面人偶表演的燈影來達到藝術效果的戲劇形式;而皮影戲中的平面人偶以及場面景物,通常是民間藝人用手工,刀雕彩繪而成的皮制品,故稱之為皮影。在過去還沒有電影、電視的年代,皮影戲曾是十分受歡迎的民間娛樂活動之一。


                      四、皮影歷史起源



                          皮影戲從有文字記載,已經有2000多年的歷史,漢武帝愛妃李夫人染疾故去了,武帝的思念心切神情恍惚,終日不理朝政。大臣李少翁一日出門,路遇孩童手拿布娃娃玩耍,影子倒映于地栩栩如生。李少翁心中一動,用棉帛裁成李夫人影像,涂上色彩,并在手腳處裝上木桿。入夜圍方帷,張燈燭,恭請皇帝端坐帳中觀看。武帝看罷龍顏大悅,就此愛不釋手。這個載入《漢書》的愛情故事,被認為是皮影戲最早的淵源。

                         中國皮影藝術從十三世紀元代起,隨著軍事遠征和海陸交往,相繼傳入了波斯(伊朗)、阿拉伯、土耳其、暹羅(泰國)、緬甸、馬來群島、日本以及英、法、德、意、俄等亞歐各國。

                      明武宗正德戊辰三年(1508年)北京曾舉辦百戲大會,皮影戲參加了演出。另傳皮影自明中葉從蘭州和華亭先傳入河北涿州、后再傳到京西、北郊農村,然后入城并形成東、西城兩派。

                          從清人入關至清末民初,中國皮影戲藝術發展到了鼎盛時期。當時很多官第王府豪門旺族鄉紳大戶,都以請名師刻制影人、蓄置精工影箱、私養影班為榮。在民間鄉村城鎮,大大小小皮影戲班比比皆是,一鄉一市有二三十個影班也不足為奇。無論逢年過節、喜慶豐收、祈福拜神、嫁娶宴客、添丁祝壽,都少不了搭臺唱影。連本戲(連續劇)要通宵達旦或連演十天半月不止,一個廟會可出現幾個影班搭臺對擂唱影,熱鬧非凡,其盛狀可想而知。

                          清代北京皮影已很普及。除深受農民、市民歡迎外,還進入到宮廷。康熙時,禮親王府設有八位食五品俸祿的官員專管影戲。嘉慶時逢年過節等喜慶日子還傳皮影班進宅表演。當時的北京影戲班白天演木偶,夜晚則于堂會唱影戲,有不少京劇演員也參加影戲班演出。

                          到了清代后期,曾有些地方官府害怕皮影戲的黑夜場所聚眾起事,便禁演影戲,甚至捕辦皮影藝人。皮影藝人還曾受清末白蓮教起義的牽連,被以“玄燈匪”的罪名遭到查抄。日軍入侵前后,又因社會動蕩和連年戰亂,民不聊生,致使盛極一時的皮影行業萬戶凋零,一蹶不振。

                          1949年后,全國各地殘存的皮影戲班、藝人又開始重新活躍,從1955年起,先后組織了全國和省、市級的皮影戲匯演,并屢次派團出國訪問演出,進行文化藝術交流,頗有成果。但到“文革”時,皮影藝術再次遭“破四舊”的噩運,從此元氣大傷。




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