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                      汴京燈籠
                      點擊: 次  發布時間:2015/4/5 20:56:22

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                          汴梁燈籠張第一代先祖張泰全,少年拜師學藝,青年時代成為開封城內制作彩燈的能手,當時官府門前高懸的宮燈及府內懸掛的各種彩燈,大多出自他手,是汴梁燈籠張的創始人。道光二十一年(1841),開封遭黃河水患,張家遷至山東濟寧謀生。張弘八九歲隨父學藝,后亦成高手。張氏父子在濟寧為人做彩燈、扎頂棚、裱字畫。因技藝精良,不僅生活無慮,后來成為河東河道總督府的附屬“活戶”(為官府服務,由官府使用的工藝匠人)。同治八年(1869),張氏父子返回開封,在理事廳街西口路北創建“敬文齋”裝裱店。適逢河東河道總督蘇廷魁在北三圣廟街新建河道總督府行臺,隨即參與行臺的裝飾、布置。光緒二十七年(1901)八月二十四日,慈禧太后與光緒皇帝自西安啟程,回京途中,于十月初二日(11月12日)抵達開封,并在開封行宮住蹕32天,至十一月初四日(12月14日)離汴返京。河南巡撫松壽等地方官員為取悅慈禧,事前對行宮進行了大規模的修葺。受官府指派,張弘率工匠裝修、布置行宮。張弘之子嘉獻、嘉信、嘉義隨父進宮做幫手。經修葺、裝飾、布置,據《庚子西狩叢談》記載:行宮陳設極壯麗,入仙瞻仰一周,儼然有內廷氣象。由此敬文齋張家名聲大震,汴人贊譽為“汴梁燈籠張”。

                        張嘉義亦是八九歲隨父學藝,他雖為幼子,但心靈手巧,頗得真傳,能做幾十種民間玩具,遂成為汴梁燈籠張的第五代傳人。清末、民國年間,燈籠張傳統制燈技藝已十分成熟,可用紙、布、綢、緞、絹、竹、木等材料制造各種彩燈,有宮燈、走馬燈、折合燈、云中燈(可放入夜空中的孔明燈等)、水中燈(放入河湖之中蓮花燈、花船燈等)、造型燈等。造型燈為七大類,有人物造型燈(佛像燈、財神燈、阿福燈等);動物造型燈(龍燈、錦雞燈、神犬燈、鯉魚跳龍門燈、孔雀開屏燈等);植物造型燈(荷花燈、西瓜燈、壽桃燈、石榴燈等);建筑造型燈(城門燈、鼓樓燈、鐵塔燈、龍亭燈、八角琉璃殿燈等);玩具燈(風車燈、猴上樹燈、年年有余燈等);山水盆景燈(以燈的形式展現各種山水奇觀);架子焰火燈(焰火與彩燈相結合的一種工藝品),架子即為彩燈,焰火五顏六色。張家的彩燈,不僅品種繁多、制作精巧,而且彩燈造型具有雕塑的惟妙惟肖特征(如人物、龍王、財神、元寶、佛手等)。

                        



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