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                      布老虎
                      點擊: 次  發布時間:2015/4/5 20:54:17

                         

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                          布老虎是一種古代就已在中國民間廣為流傳的傳統工藝品,它又是很好的兒童玩具、室內擺設、饋贈禮品及個人收藏品。它品種繁多,流傳廣泛,是一種極具鄉土氣息的民間工藝品。

                          2008年6月7日,布老虎經國務院批準列入第二批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄

                          追根溯源,布老虎起源于虎圖騰崇拜。原始社會,風雷閃電,猛獸出沒,人類自身的脆弱,強大的老虎被人們看作是世界上的強者。而老虎不僅勇猛無敵,而且對自己的幼崽特別保護,民間有“虎毒不食子“的說法。因此,人們把虎作為生命保護神和繁衍生育之神。布老虎以雙頭虎枕為多見,是崇虎習俗在民俗中的表現形式,其中蘊含著深厚的文化內涵。雙頭虎枕是一個象征陰陽相合的母體,可以祛災,保護娃娃的平安。而單頭虎、直臥虎等則是作為全家保護神的鎮宅圖騰虎類型 。

                      布老虎是中國漢族傳統的民間藝術,在中國民間廣為流傳。 布老虎的存在源于民間百姓對虎的崇拜。虎崇拜最早源于伏羲時期,著名民族學家劉堯漢在《中國文明源頭新探》一書中講到:“伏羲本為虎圖騰,秦漢以后有史學家以龍為真命天子的思想。”由此可見虎圖騰源自伏羲并早于龍圖騰。農歷五月初五端午節期間,民間盛行給兒童做布老虎,或者用雄黃在兒童的額頭畫虎臉,寓意健康、強壯、勇敢。

                          布老虎之所以成為布制玩具中的代表,是因為它與中國民間風俗有著極為密切的關系,這種關系最早可以追溯到上古時期。早在距今約六千多年的新石器時代,原始部族在陶器、石器及玉器上,便 布老虎 有類似虎的圖畫,在河南出土的仰韶文化時期的墓葬中,虎與龍分別居于死者左右,從中可以看出虎在先民心中的地位。近數十年陸續在全國各地發現的大量漢朝早期的巖畫中,也充分表露出自然界猛虎的形象,畫中的老虎正撲向羊群進行捕食。

                      在社會生產力低下的時代,人們對于自然和疾病都無法科學地去認識,只能歸之于看不見、摸不著的惡鬼。人們希望戰勝它,于是便把這個希望寄托在理想中的英雄人物和老虎這種猛獸身上。老虎之所以成為百獸之王,自有其原因。從原始墓穴中的壁畫到用絲綢、象牙和木頭做成的藝術品,不同文化背景的藝術家都不約而同地贊美虎。虎擁有矯健的體態和高大的身軀,十分威猛。黃色的皮毛上配以一道道黑色條紋,額頭正中那清晰的條紋像一個“王”字,更襯托出無比的勇健,因此人們便奉其為“百獸之王”。虎的形象,也出現在社會生活的各個方面。

                          布老虎的最早形狀已無從考究,但它的出現都是與我國民間所流傳的某些習俗緊密相聯的。在工業生產較為發達的今天,人們依舊喜愛手工縫制的布老虎,因為在它的身上,不僅體現著中國婦女特有的心靈手巧和聰明才智,更多的則是老一輩對新一代的期望與祝福。從一針針、一線線的縫制中,將滿腔的愛意縫入其中。民間布老虎沒有統一的規格式樣,心靈手巧的婦女們因手頭材料的不同,隨自己的審美觀念創造出了形態迥異的布老虎。




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